Adenanthera pavonina, the Red Sandalwood or Coral Tree is cultivated for forage, as an ornamental garden plant or urban tree. It is a non-climbing species of leguminous tree useful for nitrogen fixation. It has many uses including food and drink, traditional medicine, timber, an ornamental garden plant/urban tree and as a shade tree. It has an attractive, spreading canopy. It flowers early spring to late summer fruiting in mid summer to autumn.
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.Antibacterial Antidiarrhoeal Antiinflammatory Dysentery LeprosyThe plant is antibacterial and haemaglutinin[311 ]. A decoction of the leaves is used in the treatment of rheumatism and gout[46 , 307 ]. The bark is used to treat leprosy[311 ]. A decoction of the bark and leaves is used to treat dysentery, diarrhoea and tonsillitis[303 ]. The wood is used as a tonic[46 ]. The pulverized wood, mixed with water, is taken orally for treating migraines and headaches[303 ]. In vitro studies suggest Adenanthera pavonina leaf extract has antibacterial activity against the intestinal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. Also, high doses of seed extract have an anti-inflammatory effect in studies in rats and mice.
In traditional medicine, a decoction of the young leaves and bark of Adenanthera pavonina is used to treat diarrhea. Also, the ground seeds are used to treat inflammation. Preliminary scientific studies appear to support these traditional uses. In vitro studies show that Adenanthera pavonina leaf extract has antibacterial activity against the intestinal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. Also, high doses of seed extract have an anti-inflammatory effect in studies in rats and mice.
Adenanthera pavonina is a source of aliphatic natural products (O-acetylethanolamine and 1-octacosanol), carbohydrate (galactitol), simple aromatic natural products (2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid), flavonoids (ampelopsin, butein, dihydrorobinetin, and robinetin), terpenoids (echinocystic acid and oleanolic acid), steroids (daucosterol, β-sitosterol, and stigmasterol), amino acids and peptides (2-amino-4-ethylidenepentanedioic acid and γ-methyleneglutamine), and alkaloids (O-acetylethanolamine and 1H-imidazole).
Adenanthera pavonina is a plant used in the Ayurvedic medical system in Sri Lanka for treating many diseases including diabetics. We evaluated the anti-diabetic properties and the antioxidant properties of Adenanthera pavonina leaves.
The leaf extracts of Adenanthera pavonina exhibit remarkable α-amylase inhibitory activity in the crude methanolic extract. Hence leaves of Adenanthera pavonina has a potential to be used as a regular green vegetable and also be investigated further in isolating pure compounds with anti-diabetic activity.
It is important to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of the leaves quantitatively which would allow the use of Adenanthera pavonina (A. pavonina) leaves in a more efficient and effective manner in treating diabetics. Therefore the present investigation was carried out to evaluate the in-vitro α - amylase inhibitory activity and the antioxidant activity of the leaf extracts of A. pavonina.
Collection of plant materials: Fresh leaves of A. pavonina were collected from Peradeniya and their authenticity was confirmed by The National Herbarium, Royal Botanic Gardens, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
Air-dried, powdered leaves (200 g) of A. pavonina were extracted with methanol (MeOH) at room temperature for 2 24 h using 1500 ml of MeOH for each extraction. The combined MeOH extracts were concentrated under vacuum at 40 C to 1 L and were partitioned into petroleum ether (2 500 ml). The combined petroleum ether fraction was filtered and dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and was evaporated under vacuum to dryness. The dried petroleum ether extract was refrigerated in a tightly closed container until use. The remaining methanol fraction was evaporated under vacuum to dryness and residue was partitioned between ethyl acetate (EtOAc, 1 L) and water (1 L). The ethyl acetate extract was dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and was evaporated under vacuum to dryness and refrigerated until further use. The aqueous fraction was frozen and freeze-dried and the residue was stored in the refrigerator until further use.
Free radical scavenging activity of A. pavonina leaf extract was measured using the DPPH assay as in Gulluce et al.,  with slight modifications. The plant extract was dissolved in methanol and prepared samples with different concentrations ranging from 50 to 1000 μg/ml. A methanolic solution (0.1 M) of DPPH was freshly prepared and kept in dark at 4 C until use. A volume of 1 ml of the extract was added into 1 ml of methanolic DPPH solution. Replacing the extract with 100% methanol solution the control reaction was made. The mixture was incubated for 30 min in dark at ambient temperature and thereafter the absorbance was measured at 517 nm UV-Visible spectrophotometer . The Antioxidant activity was calculated using the following equation:
LD50 values lower than 1000 μg/ml is considered to be cytotoxic in the toxicity evaluation of plant extracts using brine shrimp assay . The LD50 value of the crude methanol extract of A. pavonina leaves was estimated to be 1963.936 μg/ml indicating the absence of cytotoxic compounds in the extract.
Hence the above results suggest that the leaf extracts of A. pavonina could be greatly beneficial in reducing the absorption of starch into the body also can be effectively used in ayurvedic treatments. Since leaves of A. pavonina is used mostly among the rural population as a green vegetable use of this leafy vegetable can be promoted among the urban population for its health benefits especially in the management of diabetics.
According to the result of the study on the leaf extracts of Adenanthera pavonina exhibit α-amylase inhibitory activity with remarkable activity in the crude methanolic extract. Hence leaves of Adenanthera pavonina has the potential to be used as a green vegetable and also be used in ayurvedic decoctions in controlling and treatment of Type II diabetes mellitus. Furthermore, this study has opened opportunities for future research in searching for novel effective drugs for diabetics that possess both antioxidant activity and anti-diabetic activity.
Background: Diabetes has caused a major burden to the health sector in the developing countries and has shown an increasing trend among the urban population. It is estimated that most patients are with type II diabetes which could be easily treated with dietary changes, exercise, and medication. Sri Lanka carries a long history ayurvedic medicine where it uses the plant for treating many diseases. Therefore it is important to screen medicinal plants scientifically so they could be used safely and effectively in the traditional medical system and also be used for further investigations. Adenanthera pavonina is a plant used in the Ayurvedic medical system in Sri Lanka for treating many diseases including diabetics. We evaluated the anti-diabetic properties and the antioxidant properties of Adenanthera pavonina leaves.
Conclusion: The leaf extracts of Adenanthera pavonina exhibit remarkable α-amylase inhibitory activity in the crude methanolic extract. Hence leaves of Adenanthera pavonina has a potential to be used as a regular green vegetable and also be investigated further in isolating pure compounds with anti-diabetic activity.
The cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus is one of the major pests of Vigna unguiculata cowpea. Digestion in the cowpea weevil is facilitated by high levels of cysteine and aspartic acid proteinases. Plants synthesize a variety of molecules, including proteinaceous proteinase inhibitors, to defend themselves against attack by insects. In this work, a trypsin inhibitor (ApTI) isolated from Adenanthera pavonina seeds showed activity against papain. The inhibition of papain by ApTI was of the noncompetitive type, with a K(i) of 1 microM. ApTI was highly effective against digestive proteinases from C. maculatus, Acanthoscelides obtectus (bean weevil), and Zabrotes subfasciatus (Mexican bean weevil) and was moderately active against midgut proteinases from the boll weevil Anthonomus grandis and the mealworm Tenebrio molitor. In C. maculates fed an artificial diet containing 0.25% and 0.5% ApTI (w/w), the latter concentration caused 50% mortality and reduced larval weight gain by approximately 40%. The action of ApTI on C. maculatus larvae may involve the inhibition of ApTI-sensitive cysteine proteinases and binding to chitin components of the peritrophic membrane (or equivalent structures) in the weevil midgut.
Botany A medium- to large-sized deciduous tree, A. pavonina ranges in height from 6-15 m with diameters up to 45 cm, depending upon location. The tree is generally erect, having dark brown to grayish bark, and a spreading crown. Multiple stems are common, as are slightly buttressed trunks in older trees. The leaves are bipinnate with 2-6 opposite pairs of pinnae, each having 8-21 leaflets on short stalks. The alternate leaflets, 2.0-2.5 cm wide and 3 cm long, are oval-oblong with an asymmetric base and a blunt apex, being a dull green color on top and a blue-green beneath. The leaves yellow with age.
Ecology This species is common throughout the lowland tropics up to 300-400 m. Adenanthera pavonina is a secondary forest tree favoring precipitation ranging between 3000-5000 mm for optimal growth. Found on a variety of soils from deep, well-drained to shallow and rocky, this tree prefers neutral to slightly acidic soils. Initial seedling growth is slow, but rapid height and diameter increment occur from the second year onward. The tree is susceptible to breakage in high winds, with the majority of damage occurring in the crown. Rapid resprouting and growth following storm damage has been recorded in the Samoan Islands (Adkins 1994). 041b061a72